Cameroon: Have a male partner? 3 years in prison

Ismael was living with his partner, an arrangement that outraged his neighbors in northern Cameroon. A Muslim, he was arrested, tried, convicted and now lives alone and abandoned in Tcholliré prison.

Click on the image to help support gay prisoners in Cameroon through the Pas Seul / Not Alone nutrition program.

Click on the image to help support gay prisoners in Cameroon through the Pas Seul / Not Alone nutrition program.

By Steeves Winner

Convicted of homosexuality because he was living with a man,  Ismael was sentenced to three years in prison in northern Cameroon.

Now 23 years old, calm, slender Ismael is a devout Muslim who strives to live by Islam’s teachings, though he cannot change his sexual orientation

Abandoned by his family, he now lives a meager existence in the prison in the town of Tcholliré about 150 kilometers southeast of Garoua.

A fashion designer by profession, he was living with his friend Koh (a pseudonym) before his arrest.

Their world fell apart in June 2016, shortly after Koh’s effeminate behavior aroused suspicions of their neighbors that the two of them were homosexuals.

At first, the two partners were optimistic about the situation and thought the neighbors’ suspicions would dissipate. But one evening after Ismael returned from work, he found what seemed to be the entire  neighborhood verbally abusing Koh. Unable to diffuse the situation, the two men locked themselves in their home.

One neighbor then went to the police to complain that a gay couple lived in the neighborhood. He said he feared they would kidnap his child.

When the police arrived, Ismael talked with them about the situation. Koh fled and police arrested Ismael.

He was put on trial, convicted of homosexual activity and sentenced to three years in prison. Koh was never seen again.

Without legal assistance, Ismael spent five days in police custody before being transferred to Garoua prison and then to Tcholliré prison.

Today, Ismael lives there, never visited by his family or members of his Muslim community. Instead of visiting, they treat him as a demon.

He must depend on the prison’s meager low-quality rations, which are not served regularly.

At this point, having already served 2 years and 4 months of his sentence, Ismael has six months to go before his release. He needs better food if he is to make it through the rest of his sentence in good health.

How to help

Please contribute to the Pas Seul / Not Alone project, which will provide food for Ishmael and two other men who are in northern Cameroon jails solely because of whom they love.

Our request to you is to help us raise money for the prisoners’ food over the next six months. To do that, please sign up for a modest monthly donation — $5 would be helpful, $10 or more would be better. This can be easily arranged through the DonorBox site, where donors keep control and can cancel at any point. Of course, we will accept one-time donations (via Facebook, PayPal or check) if you prefer to contribute in that way.


Steeves Winner, the author of this article, is an activist for LGBTI rights in Cameroon who writes under a pseudonym. Contact him at steeves.w@yahoo.com

The post Cameroon: Have a male partner? 3 years in prison appeared first on Erasing 76 Crimes.


Source: 76crimes

Blackmailers force Nigerian student to come out to family

A Nigerian student at Abia State Polytechnic was set up, blackmailed and forced to come out to his family because of the blackmailers’ threats.


From the African Human Rights Media Network


Abia State Polytechnic

Abia State Polytechnic, where the blackmailer and his victim met.

By Mike Daemon

Chigozie (names changed), a student in his early 20s, told NoStringsNG that his troubles began when Obi, a coursemate, started making advances at him. Chigozie turned him down, but it became obvious that Obi was still interested in him.

“While in school, he would make advances at me, telling me he likes me and all, and I think at one time, he tried to kiss me at a quiet corner, but I refused,” Chigozie told NoStringsNG, which he contacted for advice.

Chigozie said that last week, after they exchanged phone numbers, they started chatting on Facebook, and Obi kept insisting that they meet up at his place. Chigozie kept turning Obi down as he was still unsure if Obi was gay.

“After we exchanged phone numbers, he kept messaging me on Facebook about how he needed my company, and how I was not making him happy by not coming over to see him. I did not want to see him because I was not sure if he was gay or not, but I later considered seeing him,” Chigozie said.

He didn’t know that he was being lured to a trap, Chigozie said, but he soon learned what was at stake:

“I did not know that he and his friends were planning to set me up. I went there on the way back from school with my laptop and new phone. When I got there, after a while we started talking and then he started to touch me and we both undressed.

“A few minutes later, another set of guys barged in and started taking photographs. They forced me to admit that I am gay, and after interrogating me, they took my laptop and phone and then asked me to leave.”

It didn’t end there. The blackmailers started leaving messages for Chigozie on Facebook, asking him to pay money or they would release his photos on the internet and out him to his family.

“After I left my course mate’s house, he kept sending me messages on Facebook, threatening that he was going to expose me to my family, and also release my nude photos if I did not pay them. But I did not have any money. They kept my phone line active, and when one of my sisters called my number, one of them answered and told them that they should ask me what I did and why they have my phone.”

Chigozie said he had no choice but to come out to his family. Following his confession, his family told him they were pleased that it happened to him — because they believe it will teach him a lesson and force him to change.

Mike Daemon comments:

Blackmail and extortion are two of the many things LGBT people suffer in Nigeria. Blackmailers mostly go unpunished. They believe that since LGBT people are not protected under the law, no harm will come to them and their actions are justified under the country’s anti-gay laws.

But blackmail is a criminal offense, and we hope that, one day, homosexuality will be decriminalized in the country and the rights of LGBT people will be recognized and respected.

Source: Rights Africa

Related articles:

The post Blackmailers force Nigerian student to come out to family appeared first on Erasing 76 Crimes.


Source: 76crimes

Gay Muslim in a Cameroon prison, ‘almost a slave’

A gay Muslim who was arrested in 2015 when police raided his Cameroon hotel room, Ibrahim was sentenced to prison because his hotel rendezvous was with a man whom he loved.

Click on the image to help support gay prisoners in Cameroon through the Pas Seul / Not Alone nutrition program.

Click on the image to help support gay Muslim prisoners in Cameroon through the Pas Seul / Not Alone nutrition program.

Abandoned by his Muslim family, Ibrahim is a prisoner because of his sexual orientation

By Steeves Winner

Since 2015, Ibrahim has been serving a six-year sentence for homosexuality at Guider prison in the Muslim-majority region of northern Cameroon.

A gay Muslim, 25-year-old frizzy-haired Ibrahim seems timid, with an absent look in his blood-shot eyes,. He says he has become just a shadow of what he was before his imprisonment three years ago. He is skinny from malnutrition and his skin is marked with scabs and skin disease.

In the past, he lived with his family and sold peanuts in the city to get by.

He knew he was attracted to men, but he did not admit it because he is a gay Muslim.

“I have always been attracted to people of the same sex as me,” he said. “I know that my religion condemns me but that attraction is stronger than me. I am almost its slave.”

A few years ago he made friends with Abdelaziz, 28, who also ran a small business in Guider.

They fell in love and soon were meeting for a regular rendezvous at a local hotel.  They would stay in the room for two to three hours of time, which caught the eye of the hotel’s receptionist.

Ibrahim picks up the story from there:

I do not know how they knew we were homosexuals, because we never arrived at the hotel together. One of us reserved the room in advance. The other entered discreetly.

Our eighth time there was June 24, 2015.

That afternoon, when we were already in the room and ready for sex, we heard police banging on the door of our hotel room. Panicked, we refused to open the door.

The police quickly forced it open and found us.

We soon realized that the receptionist had wondered about our regular visits to his hotel and had alerted the police.

Police locked us in a cell for four days. During that time, none of our families came to see us, despite phone calls and letters. Then we were transferred to the prosecutor’s office. We were tried and sentenced to six years in Guider prison.

If we had more money, perhaps we could have bribed our way out jail and avoided the trial.

For three years now, our life in prison has been dismal. We are victims of homophobia — we are stigmatized, discriminated against and abused by guards and prisoners alike.

We don’t have enough to eat. The prison only supplies us with one meal a day — at most — and it is of poor quality.  Sometimes there’s no food at all. Sometimes we go several days without eating.

The food is so bad that we regularly suffer from diarrhea and other diseases.

Our families don’t help us at all. They wish we were dead.

From our families’ viewpoint, we have disgraced our religion, which prohibits this kind of practice.

If homosexuality were a choice, I would become a heterosexual so I could get out of this hell. But for me it’s a natural attraction. I can’t change it.

Help !!!

How to help

Please contribute to the Pas Seul / Not Alone project, which will provide food for Abdelaziz and two other men who are in northern Cameroon jails solely because of whom they love.

Our request to you is to help us raise money for the prisoners’ food over the next six months. To do that, please sign up for a modest monthly donation — $5 would be helpful, $10 or more would be better. This can be easily arranged through the DonorBox site, where donors keep control and can cancel at any point. Of course, we will accept one-time donations (via Facebook, PayPal or check) if you prefer to contribute in that way.

 

 

The post Gay Muslim in a Cameroon prison, ‘almost a slave’ appeared first on Erasing 76 Crimes.


Source: 76crimes

6 years in prison because Abdelaziz loved a man

Abdelaziz has been in Guider prison in northern Cameroon since 2015, sentenced to sex years of imprisonment because of his sexual orientation.

Click on the image to help support gay prisoners in Cameroon through the Pas Seul / Not Alone nutrition program.

Click on the image to help support gay prisoners in Cameroon through the Pas Seul / Not Alone nutrition program.

Cameroon: 6 years in prison because of his sexual orientation

By Steeves Winner

Abdelaziz is a convict at Guider prison in Muslim-majority northern Cameroon, serving a six-year sentence for homosexuality.

Tall, forthright and effeminate, Abdelaziz is 28 years old and very thin — apparently malnourished because prison food is scanty and foul.

Before his arrest in 2015, he lived in a rented apartment and sold electronic devices in Guider city.

Until then, his sexual orientation had never caused a problem despite his effeminate appearance. He is a devout Muslim and most people had no idea that he was attracted to men.

Abdelaziz describes his relationship with 25-year-old Ibrahim and what it led to:

It started without our realizing it. We began dating and then we let ourselves be carried away. We were happy.

We met at a hotel for privacy and to avoid suspicious looks. All went well for a while. But then the hotel receptionist became curious, started keeping track of our visits and then called the police. We did not know that was happening. We suspected nothing.

In the afternoon of June 24, 2015, police officers knocked at the door of our hotel room. Panicked, we looked for a way to escape but did not find one. The police beat us up and then arrested us as criminals.

They held us in police cells for four days. We called family members. We wrote letters to them. No one came to see us.

We were handed over to the prosecutor and put on trial for homosexuality.

Attorney Tchoua Nana Viviane Nana represented us pro bono. We also were supported by the gay advocacy association Jeunes Solidaires de Garoua. But no one could figure out how we could be freed.  We didn’t have enough money to pay a bribe, which could have saved us.

We were convicted, sentenced to six years and sent to the Guider prison.

For three years now, our life in prison has been dismal. In prison we are stigmatized, discriminated against, abused and shunned by prison guards and other prisoners. The whole prison knows that we are homosexuals.

Our families have abandoned us. They call us devils.

Our wish is that we will emerge safe and sound from this hell. Then we hope to start our life again in another country, far away from this society that judges us and wants to see us dead.

How to help

Please contribute to the Pas Seul / Not Alone project, which will provide food for Abdelaziz and two other men who are in northern Cameroon jails solely because of whom they love.

Our request to you is to help us raise money for the prisoners’ food over the next six months. To do that, please sign up for a modest monthly donation — $5 would be helpful, $10 or more would be better. This can be easily arranged through the DonorBox site, where donors keep control and can cancel at any point. Of course, we will accept one-time donations (via Facebook, PayPal or check) if you prefer to contribute in that way.

 

The post 6 years in prison because Abdelaziz loved a man appeared first on Erasing 76 Crimes.


Source: 76crimes

Commentary: Aid cut would make gay Tanzanians into scapegoats

LGBT+ Tanzanians will lose out and become scapegoats if donors cut aid, says Anthony Oluoch, program manager for the LGBT+ rights organization Pan Africa ILGA. Representatives of 10 organizations in Tanzania contributed to his statement, but they could not be named for security reasons.

Tanzanian President John Magufuli (Emmanuel Herman photo courtesy of Reuters and Lusaka Times

Tanzania has launched a crackdown on its LGBT citizens since John Magufuli was elected president in 2015. (Emmanuel Herman photo courtesy of Reuters and Lusaka Times

 

Oluoch’s commentary was published by Openly, an initiative of the Thomson Reuters Foundation dedicated to impartial coverage of LGBT+ issues from around the world:

Withholding aid to Tanzania is a bad idea

LGBT+ Tanzanians will lose out and become scapegoats if donors cut aid

Anthony Oluoch: Cutting Western aid because of Tanzania's homophobia would make LGBT Tanzanians into scapegoats. (Photo courtesy of Twitter)

Anthony Oluoch: Cutting Western aid because of Tanzania’s homophobia would make LGBT Tanzanians into scapegoats. (Photo courtesy of Twitter)

The call by Paul Makonda, the regional commissioner for Tanzania’s economic capital Dar es Salaam, for a crackdown on LGBT+ people in the country has created a climate of fear and prejudice in which homophobia is running rife.

Activists in the country report a sense of fear. Fear of attack on their bodies. Fear that gay and transgender organisations will no longer be able to operate and offer much-needed services.

People are leaving the country. Others are planning to emigrate while others can’t due to logistical reasons.

This fear is obviously not unfounded. Makonda’s comments have had a ripple effect that has seen hatred spread to the rest of society.

Denmark, Tanzania’s second-biggest donor, said that it would withhold $10m of aid. The Danish government supports many things in mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar including the country’s Health Sector Strategic Plan (HSSP IV) through the Health Basket Fund.

This provides pooled donor funds to the health sector and is regarded as the most effective way of supporting the government’s efforts of improving the overall health in Tanzania and boost access to quality primary healthcare services for the poor.

Ulla Tornaes, Denmark's development minister, said her country is withholding $9.8m in aid to Tanzania after "unacceptable homophobic comments" from a senior Tanzanian politician. (Photo courtesy of YouTube)
Ulla Tornaes, Denmark’s development minister, said her country is withholding $9.8m in aid to Tanzania after “unacceptable homophobic comments” from a senior Tanzanian politician. (Photo courtesy of YouTube)

Canada is also reportedly considering similar sanctions. Ottawa’s current support contributes to the country’s health and education sector as well as to the health and rights of women and children.

Canada supports efforts to strengthen the health system as a whole, as well as increasing access to skilled health workers, to increase the number of babies born in health facilities, to help prevent malaria and tuberculosis, and to reduce the impact of HIV/AIDS on children and their families.

In education, Canada is helping to improve the quality of teaching and increasing equitable access to secondary and vocational education.

The public in the West is currently pressuring their governments to withhold aid to Tanzania because of how the government is treating LGBT+ people. Hundreds of activists on the ground have done a lot of work in trying to change the mindsets of the people in their country. A mindset that was placed there through western influence, western laws and western religion.

In 2012, former UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon spoke passionately at the Human Rights Council. While he highlighted the need for violence and discrimination to end, he also took the time to detail the way those changes can happen.

“We reject aid conditionality,” he said clearly. In a global community rife with power-imbalances, this is important. There should be no manipulation of the global aid system to try to bring about change, as such change is swiftly followed by resentment against the compelling nation, and the cause for which you were forced to concede.

Support for LGBT rights in 2013 from then U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon.
Support for LGBT rights in 2013 from then U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon.

Ultimately, withholding aid to Tanzania is not a good idea. This aid also goes to improving the lives of LGBT+ people. When withheld, gay and transgender people suffer. We suffer not only because we also do not get services, but also because we are scapegoated, putting us further at the risk of violence against us.

Governments have a discretion on what and what not to support. If sending a message to the world community comes at the detriment of the section of the society they are trying to protect then that message does not need to be sent.

A government purporting to protect the rights of a certain group of people needs to do all it can not to put the lives of this same group of people at risk.

They should, therefore, support the activists on the ground.

We are working hard to create not only awareness, but also to provide services to the community. Governments should consult not just with their own LGBT+ organisations which, while well-meaning, are not best-placed to understand the nuances of the situation on the ground.

Instead, they must listen to the regional networks that understand these complications. Governments should also talk directly with politicians behind the scenes to lower the hysteria and change these discriminating policies.

Source: Rights Africa

Related articles about international responses to Tanzanian homophobia:

Related articles about Canada and Tanzania:

Related articles about Tanzania’s anti-gay crackdown:

 

The post Commentary: Aid cut would make gay Tanzanians into scapegoats appeared first on Erasing 76 Crimes.


Source: 76crimes

Help feed 3 mistreated, hungry gay prisoners

You can make a difference today in a world that’s awash with  homophobia: If you DONATE TODAY on Facebook, your donation will be doubled, because it will be matched by Facebook. Your doubled gift will buy food for three close-to-malnourished young men imprisoned in northern Cameroon, victims of that country’s anti-gay law.

Click on the image to help support gay prisoners in Cameroon through the Pas Seul / Not Alone nutrition program.

Click on the image to help support gay prisoners in Cameroon through the Pas Seul / Not Alone nutrition program.

 

Ismael, Abdelaziz and Ibrahim are serving multi-year sentences in two prisons in northern Cameroon. Tried and convicted of nothing but falling in love with men, they daily face the risk of malnutrition and disease because Cameroonian prisons provide just one  small meal a day, prepared and served with scant attention to hygiene.

“We can spend several days without proper food,” Ismael explains. “The food here is scarce and the little that we’re served is unhealthful. Because of those poor rations, we regularly suffer from diarrhea and other diseases.”

Many other prisoners receive food shipments from family members, but not Ismael, Abdelaziz or Ibrahim. They are gay Muslims in a conservative Muslim-majority region. Their families have disowned them.

But with your help, the three young men will receive supplementary food through the Pas Seul / Not Alone project, organized by the Erasing 76 Crimes and 76 Crimes en français blogs and by the St. Paul’s Foundation for International Reconciliation. Donations to the project will be used to buy food and deliver it to the three prisoners.

This work in northern Cameroon is the second phase of the Pas Seul / Not Alone project, which began last summer in Yaoundé.

At the Yaoundé Central Prison, three other gay men — Olivier, Eric and Albert — received food deliveries in early August and early September, paid for through readers’ generous donations. In September, the release of those three gay men left the prison with no more prisoners serving time there for homosexuality. But in northern Cameroon, the three other prisoners are still serving sentences of up to six years for homosexuality.

Douala is on the coast of Cameroon.

Garoua is in northern Cameroon.

There, the second phase of the project has been organized in cooperation with the local an LGBTI advocacy group, Youth Solidarity Association of Garoua. Members of the group will deliver the food to the prisoners, who are in cells at the Tcholliré and Guider prisons outside Garoua.

Our request to you is to help us raise money for the prisoners’ food over the next six months. To do that, please sign up for a modest monthly donation — $5 would be helpful, $10 or more would be better. This can be easily arranged through the DonorBox site, where donors keep control and can cancel at any point. Of course, we will accept one-time donations (via Facebook, PayPal or check) if you prefer to contribute in that way.

The money will be transferred to Cameroon after being collected by the St. Paul’s Foundation for International Reconciliation (a U.S. tax-exempt charity).

We estimate that it would cost an average of $195 per month to purchase and deliver six months’ worth of food, including prison entry fees, fund transfer fees and the cost of follow-up visits to the prisons by independent observers who will to verify that the food deliveries actually take place.

Donors will receive:

  • Updates about their sponsored prisoners;
  • Photos of the purchased food;
  • Copies of receipts verifying that the donated money has been used as planned;
  • The final report on the program; and
  • An invitation to send messages from support to your new distant friends care of 76crimes@gmail.com.

We will publish three individual articles about the three prisoners in the days ahead. If you want more information about the prisoners, you can contact reporter Steeves Winner at steeves.w@yahoo.fr.

(If you have already donated to the St. Paul’s Foundation this year, thank you. Please send messages of support to the prisoners care of 76crimes@gmail.com. We will deliver those messages along with the food.)

The prison sentences for these men extend to 2021. We hope the Pas Seul / Not Alone project can continue that long (or that the prisoners will be released early), but we will evaluate the project’s successes and challenges before extending it past mid-2019.

For now, please help us launch the nutrition project for the sake of these three Cameroonian victims of homophobia.

 

The post Help feed 3 mistreated, hungry gay prisoners appeared first on Erasing 76 Crimes.


Source: 76crimes

Barbados: A brush with death, a vigil for trans murder victims

On Transgender Day of Remembrance, Barbadian activist Alexa Hoffmann mourned the rising rate of trans murders and recalled her own brush with death.

Joining the ceremony of trans remembrance were (from left to right): Nalita Gajadhar from the National Organisation for Women (NOW); Troy Hunte, a local ally to the LGBT community; and Didi Winston, veteran Trans advocate and cultural icon in Barbados. (Photo courtesy of Alexa Hoffman)

Joining the Nov. 20 vigil for Trans remembrance were (from left to right) Nalita Gajadhar from the National Organisation for Women (NOW); Troy Hunte, a local ally to the LGBT community; and Didi Winston, veteran Trans advocate and cultural icon in Barbados. (Photo courtesy of Alexa Hoffmann)

By Alexa Hoffmann

On the evening of Tuesday, November 20, 2018, I held the first candlelight vigil in Barbados for Trans and Gender Non-Conforming lives lost to transphobic and gender-based violence globally during the period October 1, 2017, to September 30, 2018.

This was the second demonstration for Transgender Day of Remembrance (TDoR) in the country, the first being a Flash Stand for Equality and Inclusion dedicated to Trans persons, which was held on the afternoon of Friday, November 24, 2017 as one of the launching activities of the first official Barbados Pride.

Reported trans murders keep rising. Trans Murder Monitoring project reports that 62% of those murder victims were sex workers.

The reported numbers of trans murder victims keep rising. Trans Murder Monitoring project reports that 62% of those trans murder victims were sex workers.

In 2017, the number of Gender Non-Conforming (GNC) and Trans lives lost stood at 325. This year, the number jumped to a horrifying 369, and was even said to be as high as 418 in some cases.

However, I knew very well that the figures were much higher due to circumstances such as a general lack of information on those lost, as well as mis-gendering Trans women as merely cross-dressers (as was initially reported in the case of Trinidadian Trans advocate Sasha Fierce when she was murdered in November 2017) or Trans men as “butch” or “stud” lesbians. The tally of Trans murders over a ten-year period, from 2008 to 2018 stood at 2,982, with a whopping majority, more than 2,000, occurred in Central and South America including the Caribbean.

During the launch of Barbados Pride 2017, I opined in a speech that given the close proximity of the Caribbean region to Central and South America, with some of our countries actually being located on the continental mass, it was without a doubt that the rhetoric fomenting this deadly transphobia can easily spread to the islands in a matter of time and with a very similar ratio. I based this opinion on the fact that in Jamaica dancehall music which targets gay men with horrendous violence (usually making references to shooting and setting them on fire) not only became popular there, but very quickly spread and took root in other Caribbean territories.

My own country of Barbados seems to pride itself on a culture where this music is casually played at fetes and even on public transportation, and the only attempts to monitor how it is played is to lower the volume to avoid noise complaints and reports (citations) from the police. The added issue of “buggery” and “serious indecency” laws in many of these territories bolster and cement the hostile attitudes towards not only gay men and lesbians, but Trans persons as well, especially Trans women, who are viewed as flamboyant gay men who “don’t know where to draw the line on their effeminacy.”

During the ceremony of Trans remembrance, the Trans Pride flag was displayed in front of Barbados' House of Assembly, uplit in the country's blue and yellow national colours to celebrate the country's independence. The flag was anchored by four candles, each one representing 100 Trans and Gender Non-conforming persons who were lost to transphobia and gender based violence between 2017 and 2018. (Photo courtesy of Alexa Hoffman)

During the vigil for Trans murder victims, the Trans Pride flag was displayed in front of the Barbados House of Assembly, lit in the country’s blue and yellow national colours to celebrate the country’s independence. The flag was anchored by four candles, each one representing up to 100 Trans and Gender Non-conforming persons who were lost to transphobia and gender-based violence between 2017 and 2018. (Photo courtesy of Alexa Hoffmann)

Much of my advocacy has been geared towards fighting back against this hateful narrative that I and other Trans women face and pushing to change the laws to include all of us in mainstream society. I also educate the populace about the damage which these laws and the current pop culture are causing. In the days leading up to TDoR, I made a Facebook post where I outlined the Trans and gender non-conforming (GNC) death tolls between 2012, when I first became aware of TDoR and the lists of names, up to this year. I not only outlined the numbers for each year, but the ages of the youngest and oldest victims.

It churned my stomach to know that in 2012, an 8-year-old child was beaten to death by their father, because he wanted them to behave in a more masculine fashion. An 8-year-old child, who enjoyed dancing and doing dishes, and appeared to have a happy life with other relatives before moving to live with their father, was deemed no longer worthy of living just because they didn’t fit their father’s idea of how they should be. It also disturbed me to know that recently, a 14-year-old Trans teenager had a sexual encounter on the beach with a man, and as soon as they were finished, he beat her about the head and drowned her, leaving her body there.

I felt it especially important to take a stand for those lost to transphobia, because the circumstances of those two deaths and many others were not far removed from the rhetoric in Barbados.

Here, supposedly loving “Christian” parents speak of severely beating their male children if they were ever found to be playing with dolls or dressing in ladies’ attire, and men on the block loudly tease one another when a Trans woman passes, joking that one of the men should entertain a relationship with her, only to have that man hurl a vociferous tirade laden with murderous homophobic and transphobic slurs at her, all the while feeding the raucous laughter of his friends.

Alexa Hoffmann marches in Pride Barbados 2018 (Krystal Hoyte photo courtesy of The Nation)

Alexa Hoffmann marches in Pride Barbados 2018 (Krystal Hoyte photo courtesy of The Nation)

It was even more important that I took a stand for myself, as I very nearly found my name being added to the 2018 List of Names when in February I came literally face to face with a meat cleaver wielded by a former lodger. I now look back at photos showing a long cut along my neck, a scar on my shoulder, and another one just above the left eye, which was saved only by my glasses taking the cut. The night that attack happened, I saw just how scared my brothers and sisters may have been the moment their attackers either pointed a gun at them, picked up a wooden beam or bat, doused them with a caustic or flammable substance, or simply rushed up to them in a group with balled fists.

So I made the decision to make a brief call to action. I posted again on Facebook that I wanted to hold either a Flash Stand at high noon on Tuesday the 20th, or a candlelight vigil just after sunset that same evening. I then went about the usual procedure that I relied upon to assemble a Flash Stand. I made an event page, invited as many of my friends whom I believed would either be available or may know someone who could avail themselves, and posted occasionally to let them know that (A) I was serious about the event, and (B) I expected to see them when the appointed time came.

I invited a good friend and veteran Trans advocate Didi Winston, who is well known in Barbados’ cultural and entertainment circles, as well as Nalita Gajadhar, feminist advocate and face of the National Organisation for Women (NOW), a feminist organisation which speaks out against Gender-based violence, particularly intimate partner violence.

I even invited an allied friend, Troy, who shortly after my attack offered his support to make sure that I would be safe from potential reprisal attacks. I had invited a number of others, however when I turned up at the venue, a park and garden area opposite the Parliament Buildings in Bridgetown, It was only Troy, followed by Didi, then Nalita and a fourth young man whose identity I’ll withhold for his safety.

I brought four candles, one for every hundred Trans women or part thereof who were killed in the last year, and two Trans pride flags. The idea was to simply light the candles, and take a few moments in silence to reflect on those lost, then to pack up and go back home.

We had our moment of silence, but rather than leave immediately, we found ourselves seated on a long stoop and chatting about various issues affecting Trans people in Barbados, including the challenges which Trans women face in pursuing relationships.

We even had a moment that touched all of us as one of the individuals got up and admitted out of the blue that years ago, they had a hostile view towards LGBT persons, but after visiting another country and interacting with LGBT people there, and seeing the unbiased love and hospitality they showed them, they resolved to do better and to be more kind and accepting.

A vigil that was only to last 30 minutes wound up lasting an hour and 30 minutes. At the end, as I gently blew out the candles which hadn’t already been blown out by the wind and wished my fallen siblings a peaceful slumber, I thought of the confession which was earlier made, and reflected on how it’s realisations such as the one they came to many years ago that are the reason why I advocate so earnestly in Barbados and the wider Caribbean.

If only more people came to realise that we’re no different to the average Joe or Jane in society, then we’d see a society which held less harm, hostility and death for myself and all those whom we’ve lost over the years.

My heart still thinks of that 8-year-old in Brazil who met their end six years ago. They remind me of myself when I was that age. I want to live for them so that there will no more senseless deaths.

Alexa D. V. Hoffmann is a Barbadian trans advocate focused on breaking stereotypes and social limitations imposed upon trans persons in Barbados. Alexa is the founding director of Trans Advocacy & Agitation Barbados (TAAB) and a member of the Latin American and Caribbean Network of Trans Persons (RedLacTrans). In June, she and two other Barbadian activists launched a legal challenge against the nation’s anti-sodomy law.

Related articles:

Rihanna (Photo courtesy of Loop News Barbados)

Rihanna

The post Barbados: A brush with death, a vigil for trans murder victims appeared first on Erasing 76 Crimes.


Source: 76crimes

Barbados: A brush with death, a vigil for trans murder victims

On Transgender Day of Remembrance, Barbadian activist Alexa Hoffmann mourned the rising rate of trans murders and recalled her own brush with death.

Joining the ceremony of trans remembrance were (from left to right): Nalita Gajadhar from the National Organisation for Women (NOW); Troy Hunte, a local ally to the LGBT community; and Didi Winston, veteran Trans advocate and cultural icon in Barbados. (Photo courtesy of Alexa Hoffman)

Joining the Nov. 20 vigil for Trans remembrance were (from left to right) Nalita Gajadhar from the National Organisation for Women (NOW); Troy Hunte, a local ally to the LGBT community; and Didi Winston, veteran Trans advocate and cultural icon in Barbados. (Photo courtesy of Alexa Hoffmann)

By Alexa Hoffmann

On the evening of Tuesday, November 20, 2018, I held the first candlelight vigil in Barbados for Trans and Gender Non-Conforming lives lost to transphobic and gender-based violence globally during the period October 1, 2017, to September 30, 2018.

This was the second demonstration for Transgender Day of Remembrance (TDoR) in the country, the first being a Flash Stand for Equality and Inclusion dedicated to Trans persons, which was held on the afternoon of Friday, November 24, 2017 as one of the launching activities of the first official Barbados Pride.

Reported trans murders keep rising. Trans Murder Monitoring project reports that 62% of those murder victims were sex workers.

The reported numbers of trans murder victims keep rising. Trans Murder Monitoring project reports that 62% of those trans murder victims were sex workers.

In 2017, the number of Gender Non-Conforming (GNC) and Trans lives lost stood at 325. This year, the number jumped to a horrifying 369, and was even said to be as high as 418 in some cases.

However, I knew very well that the figures were much higher due to circumstances such as a general lack of information on those lost, as well as mis-gendering Trans women as merely cross-dressers (as was initially reported in the case of Trinidadian Trans advocate Sasha Fierce when she was murdered in November 2017) or Trans men as “butch” or “stud” lesbians. The tally of Trans murders over a ten-year period, from 2008 to 2018 stood at 2,982, with a whopping majority, more than 2,000, occurred in Central and South America including the Caribbean.

During the launch of Barbados Pride 2017, I opined in a speech that given the close proximity of the Caribbean region to Central and South America, with some of our countries actually being located on the continental mass, it was without a doubt that the rhetoric fomenting this deadly transphobia can easily spread to the islands in a matter of time and with a very similar ratio. I based this opinion on the fact that in Jamaica dancehall music which targets gay men with horrendous violence (usually making references to shooting and setting them on fire) not only became popular there, but very quickly spread and took root in other Caribbean territories.

My own country of Barbados seems to pride itself on a culture where this music is casually played at fetes and even on public transportation, and the only attempts to monitor how it is played is to lower the volume to avoid noise complaints and reports (citations) from the police. The added issue of “buggery” and “serious indecency” laws in many of these territories bolster and cement the hostile attitudes towards not only gay men and lesbians, but Trans persons as well, especially Trans women, who are viewed as flamboyant gay men who “don’t know where to draw the line on their effeminacy.”

During the ceremony of Trans remembrance, the Trans Pride flag was displayed in front of Barbados' House of Assembly, uplit in the country's blue and yellow national colours to celebrate the country's independence. The flag was anchored by four candles, each one representing 100 Trans and Gender Non-conforming persons who were lost to transphobia and gender based violence between 2017 and 2018. (Photo courtesy of Alexa Hoffman)

During the vigil for Trans murder victims, the Trans Pride flag was displayed in front of the Barbados House of Assembly, lit in the country’s blue and yellow national colours to celebrate the country’s independence. The flag was anchored by four candles, each one representing up to 100 Trans and Gender Non-conforming persons who were lost to transphobia and gender-based violence between 2017 and 2018. (Photo courtesy of Alexa Hoffmann)

Much of my advocacy has been geared towards fighting back against this hateful narrative that I and other Trans women face and pushing to change the laws to include all of us in mainstream society. I also educate the populace about the damage which these laws and the current pop culture are causing. In the days leading up to TDoR, I made a Facebook post where I outlined the Trans and gender non-conforming (GNC) death tolls between 2012, when I first became aware of TDoR and the lists of names, up to this year. I not only outlined the numbers for each year, but the ages of the youngest and oldest victims.

It churned my stomach to know that in 2012, an 8-year-old child was beaten to death by their father, because he wanted them to behave in a more masculine fashion. An 8-year-old child, who enjoyed dancing and doing dishes, and appeared to have a happy life with other relatives before moving to live with their father, was deemed no longer worthy of living just because they didn’t fit their father’s idea of how they should be. It also disturbed me to know that recently, a 14-year-old Trans teenager had a sexual encounter on the beach with a man, and as soon as they were finished, he beat her about the head and drowned her, leaving her body there.

I felt it especially important to take a stand for those lost to transphobia, because the circumstances of those two deaths and many others were not far removed from the rhetoric in Barbados.

Here, supposedly loving “Christian” parents speak of severely beating their male children if they were ever found to be playing with dolls or dressing in ladies’ attire, and men on the block loudly tease one another when a Trans woman passes, joking that one of the men should entertain a relationship with her, only to have that man hurl a vociferous tirade laden with murderous homophobic and transphobic slurs at her, all the while feeding the raucous laughter of his friends.

Alexa Hoffmann marches in Pride Barbados 2018 (Krystal Hoyte photo courtesy of The Nation)

Alexa Hoffmann marches in Pride Barbados 2018 (Krystal Hoyte photo courtesy of The Nation)

It was even more important that I took a stand for myself, as I very nearly found my name being added to the 2018 List of Names when in February I came literally face to face with a meat cleaver wielded by a former lodger. I now look back at photos showing a long cut along my neck, a scar on my shoulder, and another one just above the left eye, which was saved only by my glasses taking the cut. The night that attack happened, I saw just how scared my brothers and sisters may have been the moment their attackers either pointed a gun at them, picked up a wooden beam or bat, doused them with a caustic or flammable substance, or simply rushed up to them in a group with balled fists.

So I made the decision to make a brief call to action. I posted again on Facebook that I wanted to hold either a Flash Stand at high noon on Tuesday the 20th, or a candlelight vigil just after sunset that same evening. I then went about the usual procedure that I relied upon to assemble a Flash Stand. I made an event page, invited as many of my friends whom I believed would either be available or may know someone who could avail themselves, and posted occasionally to let them know that (A) I was serious about the event, and (B) I expected to see them when the appointed time came.

I invited a good friend and veteran Trans advocate Didi Winston, who is well known in Barbados’ cultural and entertainment circles, as well as Nalita Gajadhar, feminist advocate and face of the National Organisation for Women (NOW), a feminist organisation which speaks out against Gender-based violence, particularly intimate partner violence.

I even invited an allied friend, Troy, who shortly after my attack offered his support to make sure that I would be safe from potential reprisal attacks. I had invited a number of others, however when I turned up at the venue, a park and garden area opposite the Parliament Buildings in Bridgetown, It was only Troy, followed by Didi, then Nalita and a fourth young man whose identity I’ll withhold for his safety.

I brought four candles, one for every hundred Trans women or part thereof who were killed in the last year, and two Trans pride flags. The idea was to simply light the candles, and take a few moments in silence to reflect on those lost, then to pack up and go back home.

We had our moment of silence, but rather than leave immediately, we found ourselves seated on a long stoop and chatting about various issues affecting Trans people in Barbados, including the challenges which Trans women face in pursuing relationships.

We even had a moment that touched all of us as one of the individuals got up and admitted out of the blue that years ago, they had a hostile view towards LGBT persons, but after visiting another country and interacting with LGBT people there, and seeing the unbiased love and hospitality they showed them, they resolved to do better and to be more kind and accepting.

A vigil that was only to last 30 minutes wound up lasting an hour and 30 minutes. At the end, as I gently blew out the candles which hadn’t already been blown out by the wind and wished my fallen siblings a peaceful slumber, I thought of the confession which was earlier made, and reflected on how it’s realisations such as the one they came to many years ago that are the reason why I advocate so earnestly in Barbados and the wider Caribbean.

If only more people came to realise that we’re no different to the average Joe or Jane in society, then we’d see a society which held less harm, hostility and death for myself and all those whom we’ve lost over the years.

My heart still thinks of that 8-year-old in Brazil who met their end six years ago. They remind me of myself when I was that age. I want to live for them so that there will no more senseless deaths.

Alexa D. V. Hoffmann is a Barbadian trans advocate focused on breaking stereotypes and social limitations imposed upon trans persons in Barbados. Alexa is the founding director of Trans Advocacy & Agitation Barbados (TAAB) and a member of the Latin American and Caribbean Network of Trans Persons (RedLacTrans). In June, she and two other Barbadian activists launched a legal challenge against the nation’s anti-sodomy law.

Related articles:

Rihanna (Photo courtesy of Loop News Barbados)

Rihanna

The post Barbados: A brush with death, a vigil for trans murder victims appeared first on Erasing 76 Crimes.


Source: 76crimes

Barbados: A brush with death, a vigil for trans murder victims

On Transgender Day of Remembrance, Barbadian activist Alexa Hoffmann mourned the rising rate of trans murders and recalled her own brush with death.

Joining the ceremony of trans remembrance were (from left to right): Nalita Gajadhar from the National Organisation for Women (NOW); Troy Hunte, a local ally to the LGBT community; and Didi Winston, veteran Trans advocate and cultural icon in Barbados. (Photo courtesy of Alexa Hoffman)

Joining the Nov. 20 vigil for Trans remembrance were (from left to right) Nalita Gajadhar from the National Organisation for Women (NOW); Troy Hunte, a local ally to the LGBT community; and Didi Winston, veteran Trans advocate and cultural icon in Barbados. (Photo courtesy of Alexa Hoffmann)

By Alexa Hoffmann

On the evening of Tuesday, November 20, 2018, I held the first candlelight vigil in Barbados for Trans and Gender Non-Conforming lives lost to transphobic and gender-based violence globally during the period October 1, 2017, to September 30, 2018.

This was the second demonstration for Transgender Day of Remembrance (TDoR) in the country, the first being a Flash Stand for Equality and Inclusion dedicated to Trans persons, which was held on the afternoon of Friday, November 24, 2017 as one of the launching activities of the first official Barbados Pride.

Reported trans murders keep rising. Trans Murder Monitoring project reports that 62% of those murder victims were sex workers.

The reported numbers of trans murder victims keep rising. Trans Murder Monitoring project reports that 62% of those trans murder victims were sex workers.

In 2017, the number of Gender Non-Conforming (GNC) and Trans lives lost stood at 325. This year, the number jumped to a horrifying 369, and was even said to be as high as 418 in some cases.

However, I knew very well that the figures were much higher due to circumstances such as a general lack of information on those lost, as well as mis-gendering Trans women as merely cross-dressers (as was initially reported in the case of Trinidadian Trans advocate Sasha Fierce when she was murdered in November 2017) or Trans men as “butch” or “stud” lesbians. The tally of Trans murders over a ten-year period, from 2008 to 2018 stood at 2,982, with a whopping majority, more than 2,000, occurred in Central and South America including the Caribbean.

During the launch of Barbados Pride 2017, I opined in a speech that given the close proximity of the Caribbean region to Central and South America, with some of our countries actually being located on the continental mass, it was without a doubt that the rhetoric fomenting this deadly transphobia can easily spread to the islands in a matter of time and with a very similar ratio. I based this opinion on the fact that in Jamaica dancehall music which targets gay men with horrendous violence (usually making references to shooting and setting them on fire) not only became popular there, but very quickly spread and took root in other Caribbean territories.

My own country of Barbados seems to pride itself on a culture where this music is casually played at fetes and even on public transportation, and the only attempts to monitor how it is played is to lower the volume to avoid noise complaints and reports (citations) from the police. The added issue of “buggery” and “serious indecency” laws in many of these territories bolster and cement the hostile attitudes towards not only gay men and lesbians, but Trans persons as well, especially Trans women, who are viewed as flamboyant gay men who “don’t know where to draw the line on their effeminacy.”

During the ceremony of Trans remembrance, the Trans Pride flag was displayed in front of Barbados' House of Assembly, uplit in the country's blue and yellow national colours to celebrate the country's independence. The flag was anchored by four candles, each one representing 100 Trans and Gender Non-conforming persons who were lost to transphobia and gender based violence between 2017 and 2018. (Photo courtesy of Alexa Hoffman)

During the vigil for Trans murder victims, the Trans Pride flag was displayed in front of the Barbados House of Assembly, lit in the country’s blue and yellow national colours to celebrate the country’s independence. The flag was anchored by four candles, each one representing up to 100 Trans and Gender Non-conforming persons who were lost to transphobia and gender-based violence between 2017 and 2018. (Photo courtesy of Alexa Hoffmann)

Much of my advocacy has been geared towards fighting back against this hateful narrative that I and other Trans women face and pushing to change the laws to include all of us in mainstream society. I also educate the populace about the damage which these laws and the current pop culture are causing. In the days leading up to TDoR, I made a Facebook post where I outlined the Trans and gender non-conforming (GNC) death tolls between 2012, when I first became aware of TDoR and the lists of names, up to this year. I not only outlined the numbers for each year, but the ages of the youngest and oldest victims.

It churned my stomach to know that in 2012, an 8-year-old child was beaten to death by their father, because he wanted them to behave in a more masculine fashion. An 8-year-old child, who enjoyed dancing and doing dishes, and appeared to have a happy life with other relatives before moving to live with their father, was deemed no longer worthy of living just because they didn’t fit their father’s idea of how they should be. It also disturbed me to know that recently, a 14-year-old Trans teenager had a sexual encounter on the beach with a man, and as soon as they were finished, he beat her about the head and drowned her, leaving her body there.

I felt it especially important to take a stand for those lost to transphobia, because the circumstances of those two deaths and many others were not far removed from the rhetoric in Barbados.

Here, supposedly loving “Christian” parents speak of severely beating their male children if they were ever found to be playing with dolls or dressing in ladies’ attire, and men on the block loudly tease one another when a Trans woman passes, joking that one of the men should entertain a relationship with her, only to have that man hurl a vociferous tirade laden with murderous homophobic and transphobic slurs at her, all the while feeding the raucous laughter of his friends.

Alexa Hoffmann marches in Pride Barbados 2018 (Krystal Hoyte photo courtesy of The Nation)

Alexa Hoffmann marches in Pride Barbados 2018 (Krystal Hoyte photo courtesy of The Nation)

It was even more important that I took a stand for myself, as I very nearly found my name being added to the 2018 List of Names when in February I came literally face to face with a meat cleaver wielded by a former lodger. I now look back at photos showing a long cut along my neck, a scar on my shoulder, and another one just above the left eye, which was saved only by my glasses taking the cut. The night that attack happened, I saw just how scared my brothers and sisters may have been the moment their attackers either pointed a gun at them, picked up a wooden beam or bat, doused them with a caustic or flammable substance, or simply rushed up to them in a group with balled fists.

So I made the decision to make a brief call to action. I posted again on Facebook that I wanted to hold either a Flash Stand at high noon on Tuesday the 20th, or a candlelight vigil just after sunset that same evening. I then went about the usual procedure that I relied upon to assemble a Flash Stand. I made an event page, invited as many of my friends whom I believed would either be available or may know someone who could avail themselves, and posted occasionally to let them know that (A) I was serious about the event, and (B) I expected to see them when the appointed time came.

I invited a good friend and veteran Trans advocate Didi Winston, who is well known in Barbados’ cultural and entertainment circles, as well as Nalita Gajadhar, feminist advocate and face of the National Organisation for Women (NOW), a feminist organisation which speaks out against Gender-based violence, particularly intimate partner violence.

I even invited an allied friend, Troy, who shortly after my attack offered his support to make sure that I would be safe from potential reprisal attacks. I had invited a number of others, however when I turned up at the venue, a park and garden area opposite the Parliament Buildings in Bridgetown, It was only Troy, followed by Didi, then Nalita and a fourth young man whose identity I’ll withhold for his safety.

I brought four candles, one for every hundred Trans women or part thereof who were killed in the last year, and two Trans pride flags. The idea was to simply light the candles, and take a few moments in silence to reflect on those lost, then to pack up and go back home.

We had our moment of silence, but rather than leave immediately, we found ourselves seated on a long stoop and chatting about various issues affecting Trans people in Barbados, including the challenges which Trans women face in pursuing relationships.

We even had a moment that touched all of us as one of the individuals got up and admitted out of the blue that years ago, they had a hostile view towards LGBT persons, but after visiting another country and interacting with LGBT people there, and seeing the unbiased love and hospitality they showed them, they resolved to do better and to be more kind and accepting.

A vigil that was only to last 30 minutes wound up lasting an hour and 30 minutes. At the end, as I gently blew out the candles which hadn’t already been blown out by the wind and wished my fallen siblings a peaceful slumber, I thought of the confession which was earlier made, and reflected on how it’s realisations such as the one they came to many years ago that are the reason why I advocate so earnestly in Barbados and the wider Caribbean.

If only more people came to realise that we’re no different to the average Joe or Jane in society, then we’d see a society which held less harm, hostility and death for myself and all those whom we’ve lost over the years.

My heart still thinks of that 8-year-old in Brazil who met their end six years ago. They remind me of myself when I was that age. I want to live for them so that there will no more senseless deaths.

Alexa D. V. Hoffmann is a Barbadian trans advocate focused on breaking stereotypes and social limitations imposed upon trans persons in Barbados. Alexa is the founding director of Trans Advocacy & Agitation Barbados (TAAB) and a member of the Latin American and Caribbean Network of Trans Persons (RedLacTrans). In June, she and two other Barbadian activists launched a legal challenge against the nation’s anti-sodomy law.

Related articles:

Rihanna (Photo courtesy of Loop News Barbados)

Rihanna

The post Barbados: A brush with death, a vigil for trans murder victims appeared first on Erasing 76 Crimes.


Source: 76crimes

Minor breakthrough for Jamaica’s powerful Adventists

Members of Jamaica’s powerful, popular, fundamentalist Seventh Day Adventists have started to realize that LGBT people deserve courtesy, not scorn.

Pastor Omar Oliphant (Photo courtesy of Spectrum Magazine)

Pastor Omar Oliphant: “We hold that all people, no matter what their sexual orientation, are children of God.” (Photo courtesy of Spectrum Magazine)

By Maurice Tomlinson

Seventh Day Adventists are the largest Christian group in Jamaica and count the country’s Governor General, Prime Minister, Speaker of the House and other senior government officials among their membership.

This powerful fundamentalist and anti-LGBT denomination also operates a university, Northern Caribbean University. 

During a recent event for the university a pastor favorably cited the lyrics of one of Jamaica’s most popular “murder-music” songs that calls for the shooting death of gays.

Pastor Omar Oliphant said of singer Buju Banton, ""I hear that dem releasing Buju Banton in December, and I can't wait for his return, because him have a song weh seh boom bye-bye ... yuh know I can't say di words," )

Pastor Omar Oliphant said of singer Buju Banton, “I hear that dem releasing Buju Banton in December, and I can’t wait for his return, because him have a song weh seh boom bye-bye … yuh know I can’t say di words.”

[Editor’s note: Buju Banton’s lyrics calling for the killing of a gay man (batty bwoy) begin “World is in trouble anytime Buju Banton come. Batty bwoy get up an run. At gunshot me head back. Hear I tell him now, crew, Boom bye bye Inna batty bwoy head.”]

The incident was condemned by a writer to the Jamaica Gleaner (“Will NCU, Adventist Church condemn pastor’s remarks?”). The university posted a lame response (“NCU steers clear of uncivil conduct”) where they still defended the pastor and took issue with, among other things, “alternative sexual practices, evolution” etc.

That response was condemned by the popular Jamaica Gleaner newspaper (“Editorial | The pastor’s invocation of Buju”: “The church’s interpretation of Christian values may not include an acceptance of gay love. But neither do we expect it to include hatred of people because of who they choose to love nor inciting violence if that love is between persons of the same sex. “)

Yesterday the pastor offered a much fuller apology that would have been unthinkable a few years ago:
We hold that all people, no matter what their sexual orientation, are children of God. We do not condone singling out any group for scorn and derision, let alone abuse or violence.
I don’t think that this statement can be read to mean that J’can Adventists now support recognizing the full human rights of LGBT+ people, but rather there maybe an appreciation for a “live and let live” approach.  Even the current Prime Minister recently stated that unlike his predecessor (another Adventist) he would accept a gay person in his cabinet.  
 
The times they are a’changing!
Related articles:

More context:

The post Minor breakthrough for Jamaica’s powerful Adventists appeared first on Erasing 76 Crimes.


Source: 76crimes